To better improve your English writing skills, it’s very important to learn basic grammar and proper usage of words. One vital part is to learn how nouns form their plural the correct way.
Learn how Nouns Form their Plural
A plural noun is generally formed by adding -s to its singular form. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch or -x form the plural by adding -es to the singular. Most nouns ending in -o also form their plural by adding -es to the singular. so it can improve your English writing.
Rule 1. To form the plural of most nouns just add s.
Ex: chair-chairs pen-pens
Rule 2. If the singular noun ends with s, sh, ch, x, or z, just add es.
Ex: branch-branches bunch-bunches
Rule 3. Most nouns which end in o form their plural by adding es.
Ex: volcano-volcanoes buffalo-buffaloes
However, some nouns ending in o form their plural by adding s.
Ex: zero-zeros kilo-kilos
Modification: If the singular noun ends in o preceded by a vowel, just add s to form its plural.
Ex: bamboo-bamboos studio-studios
Rule 4 . If a singular noun ends in y with a consonant before it, change y to i and add es.
Ex: story-stories army-armies
Modification: If a singular noun ends in y with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) before it, just add s.
Ex: boy-boys day-days
Rule 5. For some nouns which end in f or fe, change the f to v and add s.
Ex: calf-calves half-halves
Modification: For some nouns ending with f, just add s to form its plural.
Ex: belief-beliefs proof-proofs
Rule 6. Some nouns have the same singular and plural form. To use the plural form, use expressions that denote quantity as: a flock of sheep, a school of salmon.
Ex: offspring-offspring moose-moose
Rule 7. Some nouns form their plural by changing their spelling.
Ex: foot-feet goose-geese
louse-lice mouse – mice
Rule 8. Some nouns of foreign origin ending in um form their plural by changing um to a.
Ex: medium-media millennium-millenia
Those nouns ending in is, form their plural by changing is to es.
Ex: analysis-analyses diagnosis-diagnoses
Those nouns ending in us, form their plural by changing us to i.
Ex: alumnus-alumni nucleus-nuclei
Those nouns ending in on form their plural by changing on to a.
Ex: automaton-automata polyhendron-polyhedra
Rule 9. Most proper nouns form their plural by adding s.
Ex: Sammy-Sammys Jack-Jacks
Those proper nouns ending in s or z form their plural by adding es.
Ex: buzz-buzzes gas-gases
Rule 10. Most compound nouns form their plural by adding s.
Ex: passer-by passers-by
attorney general-attorneys general
chief of staff-chiefs of staff
maid of honor-maids of honor
A few nouns ending in ful form their plural by adding s.
Ex: mouthful-mouthfuls bucketful-bucketfuls
Rule 11. Numbers, letters, and words form their plural by adding an apostrophe and an s.
Note: It is allowed to omit the apostrophe when the omission does not cause confusion.
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